Each material surface has a different beautiful and precise drilling method. Depending on the type of material, there are corresponding drills and techniques to keep the hole drilled for the longest time. So you cannot apply a drilling method to all materials because their properties are completely different.
For beginner DIYers, this is probably the most common mistake. So we have compiled tips and techniques for drilling holes in every material surface in this article and hope it can help you.
Here’s what you need to know when drilling holes in wood, concrete, ceramic tile, metal, and more.
What is a drill bit? What do you need to know about drill bits?
#1 Drill bit definition
The drill bit is an indispensable part in the drilling machine, it acts as the cutting edge in the cutter. The main function of the drill bit is to drill holes in the surface of materials such as wood, stone, brick, metal, plastic, etc.
#2 Structure of the drill bit
Looking at the outside shape, it can be seen that the drill has two parts, the shank and the working part.
Holder: To attach the drill bit to the drill.
Working part: Taking on the task of cutting and punching holes on the surface of the material. Therefore, the working part of the drill is also divided into 2 parts: the main cutting edge (ie the first part of the drill, it is sharp and plays a role in deciding whether the drill can drill holes or not) and the auxiliary cutting edge. (located on the helix grooves, responsible for shaping and removing excess material from the borehole).
#3 Types of drill bit
There are many ways to classify drill bits, and users often divide them according to 2 factors: making materials and drilling objects.
Classification of drill bits based on material:
– Wind steel drill bit (HSS): All drill bits are made of HSS, high-speed steel material
– Alloy drill bit (TCT): The cutting edge is made from an alloy with the main component being Tungsten Carbide (WC).
Comparing the alloy drill bit and the wind steel bit, it can be seen that the hardness, heat resistance, and cutting speed of the alloy drill bit are many times better than that of HSS wind steel, so the price of the alloy bit is also more expensive.
Classification of drill bits based on the drilling object:
_ Wood drill bit: Used to drill holes in wood and materials with similar properties to wood. People often use types such as spiral, nail, paddle, wood core, etc.
– Concrete drill bit: Specialized to punch, drill holes in concrete, brick, stone, construction materials.
– Metal drill bit: Used to drill metal materials such as iron, aluminum, steel, stainless steel, etc.
How to drill holes accurately and safely on the surface of all kinds materials?
#1 Wooden surface
Wood is the easiest material to drill, does not require many requirements and techniques. You are only equipped with a common drill, even a household hand drill can drill on wood surfaces. Then you just need to insert a standard drill bit and press the drill button.
#2 Glass surface
Glass is a material that sounds difficult to drill, but if you know the technique it is very simple. It is important that you choose the right type of carbide drill for glass and ceramic tiles.
The glass surface is very smooth, so the drill is easy to go off-center. To fix this problem you can do the following:
- Use a piece of cardboard to stick it on the place where you need to drill a hole.
- Start drilling at a slow speed to make a hole in the surface of the cardboard down to the glass
- Then remove the cardboard and continue drilling at a higher level until you have the desired hole.
#3 Metal surface
Compared to wood, metal surfaces are definitely harder. If you do not have an iron drill capable of drilling metal, you can use a wood drill to drill. But it will require a lot of technique as well as your ingenuity.
To drill metal effectively, you use a hammer to make a small hole to mark the drilling point. Hold the drill more centered and then proceed to drill. This will ensure the most beautiful and technically correct drill.
With aluminum surface, you just need to take a sharp object to mark the drill point instead of using a nail to drive. If you want to increase efficiency, you can apply some engine oil, transmission oil, cooking oil, fruit oil to cool the drill bit, keep the edge of the drill sharper.
When drilling on metal surfaces you need to use firm, steady force. Choose a metal drill with a speed of about 600 – 700 rpm.
#4 Ceramic tile surface
Ceramic tile belongs to the group of materials with high hardness, so it will be more difficult to drill. So you need to equip a standard carbide steel drill bit and perform drilling at a speed of 100-200 rpm.
In order for the brick hole to be effective, you should dip the brick in water to cool it first. Always remember to put a piece of plywood under the base brick to prevent the tile from breaking before drilling.
#5 Concrete surface
For concrete surfaces, you need to equip a dynamic drill/concrete cutting drill and a concrete drill bit. To have a beautiful concrete hole, you need to be equipped with a machine motor capable of operating at a speed of 1000 rpm.
If you need to make large bore. Drill a small hole first and gradually increase the size. Drill while resting to remove drilling dust.
In case if you encounter the stones in the concrete surface. Please drill slower and start hammer drill mode to ensure work efficiency.
Why does my drill keep breaking when drilling iron surfaces?
When drilling iron, if you drill incorrectly, it will cause the drill bit to break and burn the drill. Before taking it to repair, you should find out some of the causes of the drill bit broken when drilling iron to have a suitable solution.
Some common causes of your drill bit breaking constantly when drilling ferrous or hard metal surfaces are:
The drill operates at too high a speed, which exceeds the allowable limit, leads to wear of the outer corners of the drill, thereby reducing the drill bit grinding due to the loss of a large amount of rejected material. The machine is operating beyond the warning speed when the light is green.
The cutting edge of the drill bit wears out quickly, reducing the service life when using too deep an angle. Manufacturers always recommend a blade angle of 8-12 degrees as the most appropriate.
High feed leads to large axial forces that can break the drill bit.
Using the wrong type of drill bit for the surface of the material causes the drill to heat up and increase the axial force. This results in a misaligned hole and a broken drill bit.
Some ways to limit drill bit breakage when drilling iron:
- When installing drill bits, pay attention to install coaxial drill bits.
- Drill a small drill bit before drilling to ensure that the drill goes accurately and does not bend or break when drilling on uneven, warped parts.
- When drilling should not join two parts.
- Cool the drill bit continuously with coolant when drilling for a long time or drilling on hard materials.
Steps to drill on iron and hard metal surfaces properly:
Step 1: First you need to choose the right iron drill
Most genuine drills are already equipped with drill bits. But if you have to buy, before buying you need to determine the hardness of the material to be drilled to choose the right iron drill.
Step 2: Fix the object to be drilled
To make the hole beautiful and accurate, you need to use clamps to fix the position of the material to be drilled.
Step 3: Mark the position to be drilled before drilling with a pencil or marker to make the iron drilling process faster.
Step 4: It is recommended to test drill with a small drill to avoid slipping when drilling.
Step 5: When conducting drilling, it is necessary to wear labor protection such as glasses, gloves, protective clothing to avoid sparks and debris while drilling.
Step 6: Drilling
Because iron is a hard material, it is necessary to drill slowly, keeping the average drilling speed to ensure safety. But for soft metals like steel you can drill at a faster rate.
Step 7: When you have drilled 2mm – 5mm deep, you need to lift the drill bit out of the hole and clean the metal debris to avoid jamming the drill bit and scratching the hole. Then proceed to drill further.
Step 8: After drilling the desired depth, you need to check the hole.
With only 8 simple steps as above, it will help you drill the iron with the correct technique to ensure your drill is more beautiful, working with the iron drill is also safer.